George Ross

George Ross, Pennsylvania, (1730 – 1779)

Lancaster PA (Monument)

George Ross was born in May of 1730 in New Castle, Delaware, into a very large family. His father was a minister, educated at Edinburgh, and the Ross children received a sound classical education at home. George read law at the office of his older brother, John. George attained the Bar in Philadelphia at the age of 20 and established his own practice in Lancaster, PA. As was typical of many gentlemen of the day, his politics were Tory. He served for twelve years as Crown Prosecutor (attorney general) to Carlisle, until elected to the provincial legislature of his state in 1768. There he came to understand first hand the rising conflict between the colonial assemblies and the Parliament . He was an unabashed supporter of the powers of the former. In 1774 he was elected to the provincial conference that would select delegates to attend the General Congress and was selected as a representative of Pennsylvania that same year. Ross continued to serve his provincial legislature and was a member of the Committee of Safety for his colony in 1775. In 1776 he was again elected to the Continental Congress, while serving as a provincial legislator and a Colonel in the Continental Army. His strong stance for the Colonists’ freedom led to his greatest contribution by being one of nine signers of the Declaration of Independence from Pennsylvania. He also undertook negotiations with the Northwestern Indian on behalf of his colony, and took a seat as vice-president of the first constitutional convention for Pennsylvania. He was re-elected to the Continental Congress once more in 1777, but resigned the seat before the close due to poor health. In March, 1779, he was appointed to a judgeship in the Pennsylvania Court of Admiralty. He died in that office in July 1779.

Ann Lawler Ross

Ann Lawler was born July 10, 1731 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania of Scottish descent. Her father was presumably Andrew Lawler born in 1707 who was buried at Christ Church burial ground on April 18, 1752. His estate was administered by his widow Mary (born in 1709) with George Gibson named bondsman. Mary Lawler was left with a sizable amount of property, and tradition states that she may have also kept a store in Penn Square in Lancaster. She made her will on August 30, 1773 but died nearer August 30, 1778 when the document was probated. Ann was an only child, and in her mother’s will the deceased listed three additional names; George, James, and Mary who were Ann’s children.

Not much is known of Ann’s early life. Sources do not reveal why Ann sought the counsel of a lawyer at the age of nineteen, but she was one of the first clients of George Ross. Ross had been admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1750 and moved to Lancaster to begin his practice. Their professional relationship blossomed into love and Ann married George Ross at the age of twenty on August 14, 1751. Due to their background, property, and amiability, their marriage “was considered a highly advantageous union for both” at the time. According to sources, Lancaster was a colonial city considered “. . . remarkable for its wealth, and which had the reputation of possessing the best and most intelligent society to be then found in America . . . .” The union of Ann Lawler and George Ross complimented the atmosphere of the already heralded city.

To the union of Ann Lawler and George Ross three children were born; George, James, and Mary. The eldest of Ann’s children, George Jr., was born on June 1, 1752. On April 5, 1773 he married Mary Bird (Byrd), daughter of Colonel William Bird, of Birdsboro, Berks County, Pennsylvania. They had nine children during their marriage. Both George Jr. and Mary Byrd Ross were members of the Saint James Episcopal Church. George Jr. was a devoted patriot during the Revolution, served as Vice-President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, and was commissioned by the Governor as the Register of Wills and Recorder of Deeds in 1791. He served in that position for eighteen years. When he died at the age of eighty, on November 13, 1832, he was buried in the churchyard at the Saint James Church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. His grave is one of the two hundred in the cemetery which is no longer marked.

Ann’s second child, James, was born on November 28, 1753. In 1775, James raised the first company of troops in Lancaster County under Colonel Thompson’s Regiment, and was later made captain. In the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment he was elevated to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and fought at Long Island, Trenton, Germantown, Brandywine, and in various other battles. The Ross family Bible, which was in the possession of George Ross Eshleman in 1907, stated James died without issue in Louisiana on August 20, 1809. His burial site is unknown, but thought possibly to be in Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi or that his body may have been returned to Lancaster.

The third child of Ann and George Ross was a daughter, Mary, born on December 3, 1765, perhaps the namesake of Ann’s mother. Mary first married her cousin, William Byrd who died in 1812. Her second marriage was to Joshua Scott who was a well-known civil engineer who apparently died in 1839. It appears that Mary Ross Byrd Scott married a third time because the Ross Family Bible noted she married James Wilson. Mary died at the age of ninety-two on December 20, 1858 and is buried in the Saint James Episcopal churchyard among her other relatives in Lancaster

Remembering that Ann Lawler was an only child we are also reminded that there is no mention of aunts, uncles, or cousins among her family members. Ann lost her father as a young woman and it appears only she and her widowed mother remained. So when Ann married George Ross in 1751 she also gained a huge family of brothers and sisters-in-law, nieces, and nephews. George, born on May 10, 1730, was one of eleven children of the long-standing Episcopal minister of the Immanuel Church in New Castle, Delaware the Reverend George Ross, and his second wife Catherine Von Gezel.

Many of Ann’s new relatives upon marriage were men and women especially notable during the Revolutionary era. First, of course, is Ann’s spouse, George Ross who was initially opposed to the idea of independence, but by September 5, 1774 he was serving in the First Continental Congress that met in Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia. George was not a member of Congress when the vote for independence was taken on July 4, 1776, but by July 20th was again a representative for Pennsylvania, and signed the Declaration of Independence on August 2, 1776 with a signature nearly as bold at that of John Hancock. Secondly, a sister-in –law to Ann, Gertrude Ross (being a sister of George Ross), married George Read who also signed the Declaration of Independence from Delaware. Third, George Ross studied law under his influential half-brother, John, in Philadelphia before opening his practice in Lancaster. John was the first husband of Betsy Griscom, who is the Betsy Ross celebrated for sewing the first flag for the new country, and therefore the niece of Ann Lawler Ross and George Ross.

 

Betsy Ross presenting the flag to George Washington

Fourth, sister-in-law Catharine Ross married Captain William Thompson, who later became a General, and sister-in-law, Mary Ross, married a patriot by the name of Colonel Mark Bird. Another sister-in-law of Ann’s married Colonel Edward Biddle of Reading. Biddle was speaker of the Pennsylvania Legislature and member of the first and second Continental Congresses. Finally, sisters-in-law Margaret and Susannah, married prominent clergymen in the area. So, although Ann Lawler Ross appeared to have a very quiet childhood bereft of relatives, her marriage brought a large and vivacious family group into being.

Beauty was a word that defined Ann Lawler Ross and her children, in particular. Tradition states that prior to 1760 the artist Benjamin West came to make the portraits of the Ross family at their lovely country home in Lancaster, illustrated above. Mr. Flower, a friend of both George Ross and Benjamin West stated, “The wife of Mr. Ross [Ann] was greatly celebrated for her beauty and she had several children so remarkable in this respect as to be objects of general notice.” While dining with George and Ann Ross one evening, Mr. Flower advised George to “have their portraits taken, and mentioned that they would be excellent subjects for young West.” West agreed to the assignment and the resulting portraits “greatly enlarged” his “sphere of celebrity” to the point he found it difficult to “satisfy the demands of his admirers.”

Sadly, the renowned beauty would only live another thirteen years after her portrait was made. Ann Lawler Ross passed away on May 28, 1773 more than three years prior to her husband’s signing of the Declaration of Independence. Because George Ross reportedly did not support independence until 1774, Ann may have never known about his change of heart. Her obituary appeared in The Pennsylvania Packet in Philadelphia on June 14, 1773, seen below. Ann is buried in Saint James Episcopal Church Cemetery, Lancaster, Pennsylvania in a grave that is no longer marked. Two of her children, George Jr. and Mary also rest in the same churchyard.

Obituary of Ann Lawler Ross

Ann’s devoted husband, George, would only live another six years after her death. At the age of forty-nine George died on July 14, 1779, afflicted with a severe case of gout. He is buried at Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Neither Ann nor George saw the birth of the new nation they helped found, but their many contributions to the cause of independence were nonetheless an important part of the story of America. Ann Lawler Ross bore three children who played major roles in the establishment of the country. Her husband and the family Ann enjoyed upon her marriage to George Ross contributed immeasurable amounts of courage, bravery, and intellect which laid the foundations of the new United States.

George Ross Marker

SHIRLEY HUNTER SMITH, Ph.D.
Chair – DSDI Wives Biography Project

With documentation, research, and editing assistance provided by Richard Cooch descendant of Delaware Signer, George Read, and relative of Signer, Caesar Rodney; Angie Brecheisen, colleague of the author; Ashley L. Smith, daughter of the author, and sixth great-granddaughter of New Jersey Signer, Abraham and Sarah Hatfield Clark.

Bibliography
Primary Sources
Read, Harmon Pumpelly, and Francis Nev Reed fa Reid. Rossiana: Papers and Documents
Relating to the History and Genealogy of the Ancient and Noble House of Ross, of Ross-shire, Scotland, and Its Descent From the Ancient Earls of Ross, Together With the Descent of the Ancient and Historic Family of Read, From Rede of Troughend, Reade of Barton Court, Berks, and Read of Delaware. Also Some Account of the Related Families. “Descendants of George Ross, The ‘Signer’.” Albany, N.Y.: [Press of the Argus co.], 1908, 169-171.

Read, William Thompson. Life and correspondence of George Read: A signer of the
Declaration of Independence. With notices of some of his contemporaries. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1870.
Secondary and Consulted Sources
Barthelmas, Della Gray. The Signers of the Declaration of Independence: A Biographical and
Genealogical Reference. Jefferson, North Carolina, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1997.

Clark, Martha Bladen. “The Homes of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, George
Ross” in Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine: The American Monthly Magazine, Vol, 20, 1029-1030.
https://books.google.com/books?id=xtIQAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA1029&lpg=PA1029&dq=Anne+Lawler+Ross+of+Lancaster,+PA&source=bl&ots=MfixlSaUG7&sig=ACfU3U1qDEFd7iRylrsWh4cumrkgrzkbRQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwir2ra3sNLgAhXn7oMKHdQICPo4ChDoATADegQIBhAB#v=onepage&q=Anne%20Lawler%20Ross%20of%20Lancaster%2C%20PA&f=false (accessed October 29, 2020).

Green, Harry Clinton and Mary Wolcott Green, Wives of the Signers: The Women Behind the
Declaration of Independence. (A.B. Aledo, TX: Wallbuilder Press, 1997). Originally published in 1912 as volume 3 of The Pioneer Mothers of America: A Record of the More Notable Women of the Early Days of the Country, and Particularly of the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons).

http://www.djhooker.com/26/10987.htm. (accessed October 29, 2020).

https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146282552/anne-ross (accessed April 3, 2020).

Huesken, Gerald. “George Ross, Lancaster Attorney & Signer of the Declaration of
Independence.” Clio: Your Guide to History. July 4, 2016.
https://www.theclio.com/entry/24134 (accessed October 30, 2020).

https://historyswomen.com/early-america/ann-lawler-ross/ (accessed April 3, 2020).

Rodney, Richard S. Immanuel Church New Castle. Reprinted from Historical Magazine of the
Protestant Episcopal Church for December 1948, Volume XII, pp. 367-392. (Resource
Contributed by DSDI member Richard Cooch).

Vinci, John, ed. http://colonialhall.com/ross/rossAnn.php (accessed April 3, 2020).

http://www.womenhistoryblog.com/2009/08/anne-lawler-ross.html (accessed April 3, 2020).

Images -In Order of Appearance
Ann Lawler Ross. Portrait by Benjamin West (Phillips Museum or Art, Franklin & Marshall
College), https://ehive.com/collections/4405/objects/289596/mrs-george-ann-lawler-ross
(accessed April 3, 2020)

Portrait of George Ross. Read, Harmon Pumpelly, and Francis Nev Reed fa Reid. Rossiana:
Papers and Documents Relating to the History and Genealogy of the Ancient and Noble House of Ross, of Ross-shire, Scotland, and Its Descent From the Ancient Earls of Ross, Together With the Descent of the Ancient and Historic Family of Read, From Rede of Troughend, Reade of Barton Court, Berks, and Read of Delaware. Also Some Account of the Related Families. Albany, N.Y.: [Press of the Argus co.], 1908, 207. http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd (accessed October 29, 2020).

Betsy Ross Flag Painting. This image depicts what is presumed to be Betsy Ross and two
children presenting the “Betsy Ross flag” to George Washington. The image is a version of a painting entitled “The Birth of Old Glory” by Percy Moran cir 1917 (Library of Congress) Huesken, Gerald. “George Ross, Lancaster Attorney & Signer of the Declaration of Independence.” Clio: Your Guide to History. July 4, 2016. https://www.theclio.com/entry/24134 (Accessed October 30, 2020).

Home of George Ross. Clark, Martha Bladen. “The Homes of the Signers of the Declaration of
Independence – George Ross” in Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine: The
American Monthly Magazine, Vol, 20, 1030. https://books.google.com (accessed
October 29, 2020), 1029.

Obituary of Ann Ross. The Pennsylvania Packet, 14 JUN 1773.
https://www.newspapers.com/clip/18513804/obituary_of_ann_lawler_ross_in_14_jun/ (accessed October 29, 2020).

George Ross Marker. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/2775/george-ross (accessed
October 31, 2020).

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